# CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms

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**Answer the following 10 questions based on the information given:**

In each question below are given two statements followed by two conclusions numbered I and II.

You have to take the given two statements to be true even if they seem to be at variance from commonly known facts.

Read the conclusion and then decide which of the given conclusions logically follows from the two given statements, disregarding commonly known facts.

Mark your answer as:

**1 ⇒ If only conclusion I follows
2 ⇒ If only conclusion II follows
3 ⇒ If either I or II follows
4 ⇒ If neither I nor II follows and
5 ⇒ If both I and II follow.**

**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements:**

- No women teacher can jump.
- Some women teachers are divers.

**Conclusions:**

- Male divers can jump.
- Some divers can jump.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

Since one premise is negative, the conclusion must be negative.

So, neither conclusion follows.

Hence, 4.

Workspace:

**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- All bottles are caps.
- All desks are caps.

**Conclusions**:

- Some desks are bottles.
- No desk is bottle.

Answer: 3

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**Explanation** :

Since the middle term 'caps' is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

However, I and II involve only the extreme terms and form a complementary pair. So, either I or II follows.

Hence, 3.

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**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- All lions are yellow in colour.
- No yellow-colored things are ferocious.

**Conclusions:**

- All lions are ferocious.
- Yellow-colored lions are not ferocious.

Answer: 2

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**Explanation** :

Clearly, the conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term.

So, it follows that 'No lion is ferocious'.

Since all lions are yellow in colour, we may substitute 'lions' with 'yellow-colored lions'.

Thus, II follows.

Hence, 2.

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**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- Some books are novels.
- All novels are boring.

**Conclusions:**

- All books are boring.
- All novels are books.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

Since one premise is particular, the conclusion must be particular.

So, neither I nor II follows.

Hence, 4.

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**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- Some businessmen are clever.
- Some clever people are rich.

**Conclusions:**

- Some businessmen are rich.
- Some rich are businessmen.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

Since both the premises are particular, no definite conclusion follows.

Hence, 4.

Workspace:

**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- All liquids are gases.
- Some gases are solids.

**Conclusions:**

- Some solids are liquids.
- All gases are solids.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

The first premise is Universal Affirmative type and distributes the subject. So, the middle term 'gases' which forms its predicate, is not distributed.

The second premise is Particular Affirmative type and does not distribute either subject or predicate. So, the middle term 'gases' forming its subject is not distributed.

Since the middle term is not distributed even once in the premises, no definite conclusion follows.

Hence, 4.

Workspace:

**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- No hand is nose.
- No nose is ear.

**Conclusions:**

- No hand is ear.
- All ears are hands.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

Since both the premises are negative, no definite conclusion follows.

Hence, 4.

Workspace:

**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- All papers are trees.
- No vegetable is tree.

**Conclusions:**

- No vegetable is paper.
- Some trees are papers.

Answer: 5

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**Explanation** :

The conclusion must be universal negative and should not contain the middle term.

So, it follows that 'No paper is vegetable'.

I is the converse of this conclusion and thus it follows.

II is the converse of the first premise and so it also holds.

Hence, 5.

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**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- Every worker is a minor.
- Every minor is amateur.

**Conclusions:**

- Every worker is amateur.
- Some amateur are minors.

Answer: 5

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**Explanation** :

'Every' is equivalent to 'All'.

Thus, since both the premises are universal and affirmative, the conclusion must be universal affirmative and should not contain the middle term.

So, I follows.

II is the converse of the second premise and thus it also holds.

Hence, 5.

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**CRE 1 - Syllogisms | LR - Syllogisms**

**Statements: **

- All plates are square.
- No square is green.

**Conclusions:**

- Some plates are greens.
- Some greens are square.

Answer: 4

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**Explanation** :

Since both the premises are universal and one premise is negative, the conclusion must be universal negative.

So, neither I nor II follows.

Hence, 4.

Workspace:

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